The famous “Kadi” cases have generated a wealth of articles dealing with the legal problems involved in EU implementation of UN Security Council sanctions. Less attention has been devoted to the numerous legal problems involved in the EU’s own “autonomous” sanctions system. The subject is nevertheless topical since there is a growing use of sanctions and the legal basis for sanctions has been changed with the Lisbon treaty.
EU sanctions are used both against regimes and suspected terrorist financing. But these sanctions have developed “organically”, without sufficient thought being given to certain basic issues (inter alia concerning procedural fairness). This has resulted in considerable litigation before the Court of Justice (CJEU). The new legal basis and the recent judgments from the CJEU have solved some difficulties, but “taking sanctions seriously” means new problems for national implementation, spanning over a variety of areas: criminal law, constitutional law, international law and European law.
The essays in this book, written by distinguished scholars in their respective fields, deal with some of these issues. How should we go about measuring the impact(s) of targeted sanctions? How coherent are these “administrative” measures of blacklisting with other existing and proposed EU measures in justice and home affairs promoting the criminal law model for dealing with the problem of terrorism (investigation, trial, conviction, punishment/confiscation of assets)? How can the problems caused for fair trial by the use of intelligence material be solved? If we can (or must) continue to have sanctions in the area of terrorist financing, can they be made compatible with fundamental principles of national criminal law and criminal policy? How does a system of “composite” decision-making (when the measure is partly national and partly at the EU level) avoid the risk that gaps arise in systems of legal protection? What is the spillover effect of “overbroad” quasi-criminal legislation directed at organizations, in the constitutional/human rights of freedom of expression and association? How do EU sanctions fit into, and compare to national systems for the proscription of terrorist organizations? Should the same legal safeguards be applicable both for “regime” sanctions and anti-terrorist sanctions?
About this book
‘[a] new impetus to a long-running debate’
Fredrik Stenhammar in the Nordic Journal of International Law (2014)
Introduction (p. 1)
On Assessing Targeted Sanctions Blacklists (p. 41)
Developing Multiple EU Personalities: Ten Years of Blacklisting and Mutual Trust (p. 65)
The Place of Sanctions in the EU System for Combating the Financing of Terrorism (p. 97)
How, if at All, do Anti-Terrorist Blacklisting Sanctions Fit into (EU) Criminal Law? (p. 117)
Blacklisting Sanctions and Principles of Criminal Law (p. 131)
EU Blacklisting Sanctions – A Danish Criminal Law Perspective (p. 139)
Procedural Safeguards for Blacklisting Sanctions – A Comparison with the EU Framework Decision on Orders Freezing Property or Evidence (p. 151)
Sanctions Against Terrorism and Their Impact on Freedom of Expression (p. 161)
Decision-Making in the Dark? Autonomous EU Sanctions and National Classification (p. 177)
Proscription of Organisations in UK Counter-Terrorism Law (p. 199)
The Implementation of EU Terrorism Blacklisting Sanctions in the Dutch National Legal System (p. 223)
The time that criminal law was pre-eminently a national matter is gone. Criminal law and criminal procedure is no longer solely a product of decisions made by national legislative bodies, applied by national police, prosecutors and judges. A new criminal law is developing which goes beyond separate nations: supranational criminal law.
One example of this development is the relatively young body of law concerning war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide. Particularly essential to this development has been the establishment of the ICTY, the ICTR and the ICC, and of many internationalised tribunals all over the world. A second example of the development towards the supranationalisation of criminal law can be seen on a more regional level. In Europe for instance, the area of criminal law has become a prioritised field of co-operation in the third pillar of the European Union. These supranational criminal systems are criminal systems sui generis.
That at least is the presupposition of this series on supranational criminal law. The Supranational Criminal Law: Capita Selecta series contributes to this discussion from a theoretical, dogmatic point of view, working towards new, consistent and fair penal systems, crossing the borders of the old law families and traditions.
The series is edited by Dr. Roelof H. Haveman (editor-in-chief - Rule of Law Advisor, embassy of the Netherlands in Mali), Dr. Paul J.A. De Hert (Free University of Brussels, Belgium and University of Tilburg, the Netherlands) and Dr. Alette Smeulers (University of Groningen, the Netherlands).
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