BRIAN WOOD was the head of Amnesty International' s research and policy on arms control and human rights. In the mid-1990s he initiated proposals with Nobel Peace Laureates for what has become the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT), and attended all the United Nations (UN) preparatory meetings and the two negotiating conferences. After the Treaty was passed, he took sabbatical leave to manage a UN-funded project on digital learning about the ATT. In 1999 he co-wrote, with Johan Peleman,'' The Arms Fixers: controlling the Brokers and Shipping Agents '' , the first detailed study of arms brokering (sponsored by the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs). Later he served as consultant to the UN Group of Government Experts on the prevention of illicit brokering in small arms and light weapons. He has twice addressed the UN Security Council to propose measures to strengthen the design and implementation of UN arms embargoes, and co-authored a study for improving end use and end user control systems, published in 2011 by the UN Office for Disarmament Affairs. He has researched issues relating to weapons and policing more widely, designing proposals for the European Union regulations to prevent trade in equipment used for torture. He studied economics and sociology at Rhodes University in South Africa and at the London School of Economics and Political Science.